In recent years, the practice of restrictive housing (otherwise known as solitary confinement or segregation) in U.S. prisons and jails has been the subject of increased scrutiny from researchers, advocates, policymakers, media, and the government agencies responsible for people who are incarcerated. Originally intended to manage people who committed violence within jails and prisons, restrictive housing has become a common tool for responding to all levels of rule violations, from minor to serious; managing challenging populations; and housing people considered vulnerable, especially those living with mental illness.
A number of departments of corrections are now taking steps to reduce their reliance on restrictive housing. Through a competitive application process, Vera selected and worked with five sites—Nebraska; Oregon; North Carolina; New York City; and Middlesex, New Jersey—to study their use of restrictive housing and make recommendations for ways to reduce the practice. This report summarizes Vera’s key findings and recommendations.
Keywords: restrictive housing, segregated housing, segregation, disciplinary segregation, administrative segregation, protective custody, segregated housing and mental health, reforms and alternatives, effects on institutional behavior, reentry, and recidivism, segregated housing in jails